Saint Peter's Square & St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican- Rome or
Piazza San Pietro & Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano .Probably the holiest place of all catholics.
Saint Peter's square was the place were according to legend the body of St Peter the Apostel had been burried.
The first temple then, to commemorate this fact was erected in 4 -th century , over the Emperor Constantine reign - as a typical basilical Latin Cross form with the apse at the chancel , transept, one main nave and two lower nave at each side of the main one.
The today's basilica was built in late 16- th century in a renaisance period and many famous architects, well know until today were involved in the complex process of the re-designing and re- building the basilica.
The design was started by Leone Battista Alberti and Bernardo Rossellino then with the new Pope, there was an architectural competition announced and it was the design of Donato Bramante that was selected .
The original Bramante's proposal was based on a simetrical Greek Cross with a dome inspired by the Roman temple, Pantheon only the dome was supposed to be supported by four massive columns and have a little lantern at the very top.The central dome was to be surrounded by four smaller domes , simmilarly to St Apostle's church in Constantinople
Witth the change of Pope, Bramante was replaced with another famous artist and architects, Giuliano Sagnallo, Fra Giocondo and finally Raphael Santi .
During their involvment in the project, the form of the temple was lengthened and lost its original character.
It was only after Michaelangello Buonarotti contribution that the building got closer to its very first form. Then Giacomo della Porta , and Domenico Fontanna were involved at a later stages.At that time the building site and the basilica was very critisized as it lost its ideal propotions, seemed out of the place and character after so many major amendments and alterations.
The temple as we know it today, was finally proposed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini in 1656 to 1667 .
The architect basically found the re-medium for all disproportions of the building, and provided a proper eliptical forecourt to the basilica with a collonaded arcades enclosing the place, the ancient obelisk, and a fountain.
The architect also designed an internal baldacchino - a kind of canopy supported by four twisted - rococo columns as form of enclousure to St Peter's tomb that is located underneath at the basement of the basilica .
Bernini's design was undoubtedly the most important part of finalizing the redevelopment and the effects speak for itself ; the temple and the square are one of the most handsome and admirable pieces of art in the continent.